Lal Zimman (FAQ)
[lɑɫ ˈzimn̩]

Assistant Professor
Department of Linguistics
South Hall 3518
University of California, Santa Barbara
Lal Zimman

A Bibliography of Research on Trans People & Language

Please send me any and all suitable additions!

What is in this bibliography?
Compiling this bibliography presented two challenges: defining trans and defining research on language.

For the purposes of this bibliography, trans is used as an umbrella label for any group whose gender identities or presentations diverge from the expectations for their assigned sex to the extent that they see themselves or are seen by others as non-normatively or non-binarily gendered. Some of these authors do not use words like trans(gender) to describe the speakers, and some even emphasize that the speakers they discuss are not trans. However, I have included them if they have made important contributions to the study of trans and gender non-conforming language. Groups covered also include non-binary/genderqueer individuals; drag queens, cross-dressers, & gender non-conforming cisgender individuals; Indian hijras and kotis; Tongan fakaleitis; Thai kathoeys, toms, and dees, etc. Publications on language and intersex individuals are included here too. All pieces in this bibliography in some way center trans/gender non-normative groups, as opposed to mentioning them briefly in a discussion of gay and lesbian or LGBT communities, though in some cases the discussion is more theoretical than empirical.

For the purposes of this bibliography, research on language includes publications in sociolinguistics, linguistic anthropology, socially-oriented discourse analysis, discursive psychology, communication studies, conversation analysis, and gender/sexuality/queer/trans studies. I welcome additions of all kinds, including those written by trans activists and authors outside of the academy, so long as language is a primary focus. However, I cannot claim to present an exhaustive list of relevant publications in every one of these fields, and I rely on reader submissions to make this document more complete. Not generally included here, however, is research by speech pathologists studying trans people's voices. It can be difficult to draw a firm line between speech pathology and other fields, however, so a few publications of this sort may be included if they prove particularly illuminating. I welcome additions that are particularly strong, influential, and culturally sensitive accounts from speech-language pathologists.

Finally, I have included published works in English including books, journal articles, and other published essays. I have not included conference papers except where authors have sent me a permanent link to the paper; theses and dissertations are similarly included only where authors have alerted me to their existence.


2016

  • Hazenberg, Evan. 2016. Walking the straight and narrow: Linguistic choice and gendered presentation. Gender & Language 10(2).
  • King, Brian W. 2016. Becoming the intelligible other: Speaking intersex bodies against the grain. Critical Discourse Studies 13(4). 359–378.
  • Podesva, Robert & Janneke Van Hofwegen. 2016. /s/exuality in small-town California: Gender normativity and the acoustic realization of /s/. In Erez Levon & Ronald Beline Mendes (eds.), Language, Sexuality, and Power: Studies in Intersectional Sociolinguistics, 168–188. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Zimman, Lal. 2016. Agency and the gendered voice: Metalinguistic negotiations of vocal masculinization among female-to-male transgender speakers. In Anna Babel (ed.), Awareness and Control in Sociolinguistic Research. New York & Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

2015

  • Azul, David. 2015. Transmasculine people’s vocal situations: a critical review of gender-related discourses and empirical data. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders / Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists 50(1). 31–47.
  • Borba, Rodrigo. 2015. How an individual becomes a subject: Discourse, interaction & subjectification at a Brazilian gender identity clinic. Working Papers in Urban Language & Literacies 163.
  • Brown, LeAnn. 2015. Phonetic Cues and the Perception of Gender and Sexual Orientation. Toronto, Canada: University of Tortonto PhD Dissertation, Linguistics.
  • Woolley, Susan W. 2015. “Boys over here, girls over there”: A critical literacy of binary gender in schools. TSQ: Transgender Studies Quarterly 2(3). 376–394.
  • Zimman, Lal. 2015. Transmasculinity and the voice: Gender assignment, identity, and presentation. In Tommaso Milani (ed.), Language and Masculinities, 197–219. New York: Routledge.

2014

  • Bershtling, Orit. 2014. “Speech creates a kind of commitment”: Queering Hebrew. In Lal Zimman, Jenny Davis & Joshua Raclaw (eds.), Queer Excursions: Retheorizing Binaries in Language, Gender, and Sexuality. New York & London: Oxford University Press.
  • Blackwood, Evelyn. 2014. Linguistic strategies and the negotiation of gendered identities in the “lesbi world.” In Lal Zimman, Jenny Davis & Joshua Raclaw (eds.), Queer Excursions: Retheorizing Binaries in Language, Gender, and Sexuality, 81–100. Oxford, UK & New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Davis, Jenny L. 2014. "More than just “gay Indians”: Intersecting articulations of Two-Spirit gender, sexuality, and indigenousness. In Lal Zimman, Jenny Davis & Joshua Raclaw (eds.), Queer Excursions: Retheorizing Binaries in Language, Gender, and Sexuality, 62–80. New York & London: Oxford University Press.
  • Edelman, Elijah A. 2014. Not “in” or “out”: Taking the “T” out of the “closet.” In Lal Zimman, Jenny Davis & Joshua Raclaw (eds.), Queer Excursions: Retheorizing Binaries in Language, Gender, and Sexuality, 150–169. New York & London: Oxford University Press.
  • Gaudio, Rudolf P. 2014. Acting like women, acted upon: Gender and agency in Hausa sexual narratives. In Lal Zimman, Jenny Davis & Joshua Raclaw (eds.), Queer Excursions: Retheorizing Binaries in Language, Gender, and Sexuality, 170–194. New York & London: Oxford University Press.
  • Zimman, Lal. 2014. The discursive construction of sex: Remaking and reclaiming the gendered bodyin talk about genitals among trans men. In Lal Zimman, Jenny L. Davis & Joshua Raclaw (eds.), Queer Excursions: Retheorizing Binaries in Language, Gender, and Sexuality, 13–34. Oxford, UK & New York: Oxford University Press.

2013

  • Azul, David. 2013. How do voices become gendered? A critical examination of everyday and medical constructions of the relationship between voice, sex, and gender identity. In Malin Ah-King (ed.), Challenging Popular Myths of Sex, Gender and Biology, 77–88. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
  • Dame, Avery. 2013. “I’m your hero? Like me?”: The role of “expert” in the trans male vlog. Journal of Language and Sexuality 2(1). 40–69.
  • Hall, Kira. 2013. Commentary I: “It’s a hijra!” Queer linguistics revisited. Discourse & Society 24(5). 634–642.
  • Krell, Elias. 2013. Contours through covers: Voice and affect in the music of Lucas Silveira. Journal of Popular Music Studies 25(4). 476–503.
  • Zimman, Lal. 2013. Hegemonic masculinity and the variability of gay-sounding speech: The perceived sexuality of transgender men. Journal of Language and Sexuality 2(1). 1–39.

2012

  • Prewitt-Freilino, Jennifer L., T. Andrew Caswell & Emmi K. Laakso. 2012. The gendering of language: A comparison of gender equality in countries with gendered, natural gender, and genderless language. Sex Roles 66. 268–281.
  • Zimman, Lal. 2012. Voices in Transition: Testosterone, Transmasculinity, and the Gendered Voice among Female-to-Male Transgender People. Boulder, CO: Department of Linguistics, University of Colorado PhD Dissertation.

2011

  • Papp, Viktória. 2011. The Female-to-Male Transsexual Voice: Physiology vs. Performance in Production. Houston, TX: Rice University PhD Dissertation.
  • Hutton, Christopher. 2011. Objectification and transgender jurisprudence: The dictionary as quasi-statute. Hong Kong Law Journal 41(1). 27–47.

2010

  • Cruz, Louis Esme & Qwo-Li Driskill. 2010. Puo’winue’l prayers: Readings from North America’s first transtextual script. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 16(1-2). 243–252.
  • Zimman, Lal. 2010. Female-to-male transsexuals and gay-sounding voices: A pilot study. Colorado Research in Linguistics 22(1).

2009

  • Edelman, Elijah Adiv. 2009. The power of stealth: (In)visible sites of female-to-male transsexual resistance. In William L. Leap & Ellen Lewin (eds.), Out in Public: Reinventing Lesbian/Gay Anthropology in a Globalizing World, 164–179. Malden, MA & Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
  • Corwin, Anna I. 2009. Language and gender variance: Constructing gender beyond the male/female binary. Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality 12. http://mail.ejhs.org/Volume12/Gender.htm. (Link good as of September 30, 2016).
  • Gaudio, Rudolf Pell. 2009. Allah Made Us: Sexual Outlaws in an Islamic African City. Malden, MA & Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
  • Hall, Kira. 2009. Boys’ talk: Hindi, moustaches, and masculinity in New Delhi. In Pia Pichler & Eva Eppler (eds.), Gender and Spoken Interaction, 139–162. Basingstoke, UK & New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Zimman, Lal. 2009. “The other kind of coming out”: Transgender people and the coming out narrative genre. Gender & Language 3(1). 53–80.
  • Zimman, Lal & Kira Hall. 2009. Language, embodiment, and the “third sex.” In Dominic Watt & Carmen Llamas (eds.), Language and Identities, 166–178. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press.

2008

  • Conley, Robin. 2008. “At the time she was a man”: The temporal dimension of identity construction. Political and Legal Anthropology Review 31(1). 28–47.
  • Johnsen, Ole Ringdal. 2008. “He’s a big old girl!” Negotiation by gender inversion in gay men’s speech. Journal of Homosexuality 54(1-2). 150–168.

2007

  • Besnier, Niko. 2007a. Gender and interaction in a globalizing world: Negotiating the gendered self in Tonga. In Bonnie S. McElhinny (ed.), Words, Worlds, and Material Girls: Language, Gender, Globalization, 423–446. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Besnier, Niko. 2007b. Language and gender research at the intersection of the global and local. Gender & Language 1(1). 67–78.
  • Borba, Rodrigo & Cristina Ostermann. 2007. Do bodies matter? Travestis’ embodiment of (trans)gender identity through the manipulation of the Brazilian Portuguese grammatical gender system. Gender & Language 1(1). 131–147.
  • Gaudio, Rudolf P. 2007. Out on video: Gender, language and new public spheres in Islamic Northern Nigeria. In Bonnie S. McElhinny (ed.), Words, Worlds, and Material Girls: Language, Gender, Globalization, 237–283. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Hoffman, Barbara G. 2007. Transgendered translation of Mande and Maa languages. In José Santaemilia, Patricia Bou, Sergio Maruenda & Gora Zaragoza (eds.), 306–317. Valencia, Spain: Universitat de València.
  • McNamara, Catherine. 2007. Re-inhabiting an uninhabitable body: Interventions in voice production with transsexual men. Research in Drama Education 12(2). 195–206.
  • Sa’ar, Amalia. 2007. Masculine talk: On the subconscious use of masculine linguistic forms among Hebrew-and Arabic-speaking women in Israel. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 32(2). 405–429.
  • Speer, Susan A. & Richard Green. 2007. On passing: The interactional organization of appearance attributions in the psychiatric assessment of transsexual patients. In Victoria Clarke & Elizabeth Peel (eds.), Out in Psychology: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Queer Perspectives, 335–368. Chichester, West Sussex, England & Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

2006

  • Johnson, Fern L. 2006. Transgressing gender in discourses across cultures. In Bonnie J. Dow & Julia T. Wood (eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Gender and Communication, 415–431. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Pershai, Alexander. 2006. The language puzzle: Is inclusive language a solution? In Krista Scott-Dixon (ed.), Trans/Forming Feminisms: Trans/feminist Voices Speak Out, 46–52. Toronto, Canada: Sumach Press.
  • Speer, Susan A. & Ceri Parsons. 2006. Gatekeeping gender: some features of the use of hypothetical questions in the psychiatric assessment of transsexual patients. Discourse & Society 17(6). 785–812.

2005

  • Hall, Kira. 2005. Intertextual sexuality: Parodies of class, identity, and desire in liminal Delhi. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 15(1). 125–144.
  • Parsons, Ceri. 2005. Exploring transsexual narratives of identity and (trans)formation: A search for identity. The Psychology of Women Section Review 7(2). 60–70.
  • Prince, Virginia. 2005. The “transcendents” or “trans” people. International Journal of Transgenderism 8(4). 39–46.
  • Speer, Susan A. 2005. The interactional organization of the gender attribution process. Sociology 39(1). 67–87.

2004

  • Besnier, Niko. 2004. The social production of abjection: Desire and silencing among transgender Tongans. Social Anthropology 12(3). 301–323.
  • Boellstorff, Tom. 2004a. “Authentic, of course!”: Gay language in Indonesia and cultures of belonging. In William L. Leap & Tom Boellstorff (eds.), Speaking in Queer Tongues: Globalization and Gay Language, 181–201. Urbana & Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.
  • Hall, Kira. 2004. Language and marginalized places. In Mary Bucholtz (ed.), Language and Woman’s Place: Text and Commentaries, 171–177. Oxford, UK & New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Valentine, David. 2004. The categories themselves. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 10(2). 215–220.

2003

  • Besnier, Niko. 2003. Crossing genders, mixing languages: The linguistic construction of transgenderism in Tonga. In Janet Holmes & Miriam Meyerhoff (eds.), The Handbook of Language and Gender, 279–301. Malden, MA & Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
  • Hall, Kira. 2003. Exceptional speakers: Contested and problematized gender identities. In Janet Holmes & Miriam Meyerhoff (eds.), The Handbook of Language and Gender, 353–380. Malden, MA & Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
  • Jackson, Peter A. 2003. Gay adaption, tom-dee resistance, and kathoey indifference: Thailand’s gender/sex minorities and the episodic allure of queer English. In William L. Leap & Tom Boellstorff (eds.), Speaking in Queer Tongues: Globalization and Gay Language, 202–230. Urbana & Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.
  • Manalansan, Martin F. IV. 2003a. Global Divas: Filipino Gay Men in the Diaspora. Durham, NC & London: Duke University Press.
  • Valentine, David. 2003. “I went to bed with my own kind once”: The erasure of desire in the name of identity. Language and Communication 23. 123–138.

2002

  • Hall, Kira. 2002. “Unnatural” gender in Hindi. In Marlis Hellinger & Hadumod Bussman (eds.), Gender Across Languages: The Linguistic Representation of Women and Men, 133–162. Amsterdam & Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
  • Sundén, Jenny. 2002. “I’m still not sure she’s a she”: Textual talk and typed bodies in online interaction. In Paul McIlvenny (ed.), Talking Gender and Sexuality, 289–312. Amsterdam & Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
  • Valentine, David. 2002. We’re “not about gender”: The uses of “transgender.” In Ellen Lewin & William L. Leap (eds.), Out in Theory: The Emergence of Lesbian and Gay Anthropology, 222–245. Urbana & Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.

2000

  • Livia, Anna. 2000. Pronoun Envy: Literary Uses of Linguistic Gender. New York & London: Oxford University Press.

1999

  • Barrett, Rusty. 1999. Indexing polyphonous identity in the speech of African American drag queens. In Mary Bucholtz, A. C. Liang & Laurel Sutton (eds.), Reinventing Identities: The Gendered Self in Discourse, 313–331. Oxford, UK & New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Gagné, Patricia & Richard Tewksbury. 1999. Knowledge and power, body and self: An analysis of knowledge systems and the transgendered self. The Sociological Quarterly 40(1). 59–83.
  • Kulick, Don. 1999. Transgender and language. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 5(4). 605–622.

1998

  • Barrett, Rusty. 1998. Markedness and styleswitching in performances by African-American drag queens. In Carol Myers-Scotten (ed.), Codes and Consequences: Choosing Linguistic Varieties, 139–161. Oxford, UK & New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Bing, Janet M. & Victoria L. Bergvall. 1998. The question of questions: Beyond binary thinking. In Jennifer Coates (ed.), Language and Gender: A Reader, 495–510. Malden, MA & Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
  • Epple, Carolyn. 1998. Coming to terms with Navajo nádleehí: A critique of berdache, “gay”, “alternate gender,” and “two-spirit.” American Ethnologist 25(2). 267–290.
  • Kulick, Don. 1998. Travestí: Sex, Gender and Culture among Brazilian Transgendered Prostitutes. Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press.
  • Smith, Ben. 1998. Gender bending and traditional gender in computer-mediated communication. In Suzanne Wertheim, Ashlee C. Bailey & Monica Corston-Oliver (eds.), Engendering Communication: Proceedings of the Fifth Berkeley Women and Language Conference, 521–532. Berkeley, CA: BWLG.
  • White, C. Todd. 1998. On the pragmatics of an androgynous style of speaking (from a transsexual’s perspective). World Englishes 17(2). 215–223.

1997

  • Bagemihl, Bruce. 1997. Surrogate phonology and transsexual faggotry: A linguistic analogy for uncoupling sexual orientation from gender identity. In Anna Livia & Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality, 380–401. Oxford, UK & New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Gagné, Patricia, Richard Tewksbury & Deanna McGaughey. 1997. Coming out and crossing over identity formation and proclamation in a transgender community. Gender & Society 11(4). 478–508.
  • Gaudio, Rudolf P. 1997. Not talking straight in Hausa. In Anna Livia & Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality, 416–429. Oxford, UK & New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Hall, Kira. 1997. “Go suck your husband’s sugarcane!”: Hijras and the use of sexual insult. In Anna Livia & Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality, 430–460. Oxford, UK & New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Livia, Anna. 1997. Disloyal to masculinity: Linguistic gender and liminal identity in French. In Anna Livia & Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality, 349–368. Oxford, UK & New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Pastre, Geneviève. 1997. Linguistic gender play among French gays and lesbians. In Anna Livia & Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality, 369–379. Oxford, UK & New York: Oxford University Press.

1996

  • Crapanzano, Vincent. 1996. "Self"-centering narratives. In Michael Silverstein & Greg Urban (eds.), Natural Histories of Discourse, 106-127. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Hall, Kira. 1996. Lexical subversion in India's hijra community. In Natasha Warner, Jocelyn Ahlers, Leela Bilmes, Monica Oliver, Suzanne Wertheim & Mel Chen (eds.), Gender and Belief Systems: Proceedings of the Fourth Berkeley Women and Language Conferences, 279-292. Berkeley, CA: BWLG.
  • Hall, Kira & Veronica O'Donovan. 1996. Shifting gender positions among Hindi-speaking hijras. In Victoria L. Bergvall, Janet M. Bing & Alice F. Freed (eds.), Rethinking Language and Gender Research: Theory and Practice, 228-266. London: Longman.
  • López, Ángel Juan Gordon. 1996. The rhetorics of gender identity clinics: Transsexuals and other boundary objects. In Erica Bunnan, Gill Aitken, Pam Alldred, Robin Allwood, Tom Billington, Brenda Goldberg, Ángel Juan Gordo López, Colleen Heenan, Deb Marks & Sam Warner (eds.), Psychology Discourse Practice: From Regulation to Resistance, 179-192. London & Bristol, UK: Taylor and Francis.
  • Mason-Schrock, Douglas. 1996. Transsexuals' narrative construction of the "true self." Social Psychology 59(3):176-192.

1995

  • Barrett, Rusty. 1995. Supermodels of the world, unite! Political economy and the language of performance among African American drag queens. In William L. Leap (ed.), Beyond the Lavender Lexicon: Authenticity, Imaginination, and Appropriation in Lesbian and Gay Languages, 207-226. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach.
  • Cromwell, Jason. 1995. Talking about without talking about: The use of protective language among transvestites and transsexuals. In William L. Leap (ed.), Beyond the Lavender Lexicon: Authenticity, Imaginination, and Appropriation in Lesbian and Gay Languages, 267-295. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach.
  • Hall, Kira. 1995. A third-sex subversion of a two-gender system. In Susanne Gahl, Andy Dolbey & Christopher Johnson (eds.), Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 220-233. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society.
  • Livia, Anna. 1995. “I ought to throw a Buick at you”: Fictional representations of butch/femme speech. In Kira Hall & Mary Bucholtz (eds.), Gender Articulated: Language and the Socially Constructed Self, 245–278. New York & London: Routledge.
  • Manalansan, Martin F. IV. 1995. “Performing” Filipino gay experiences in American: Linguistic strategies in a transnational context. In William Leap (ed.), Beyond the Lavender Lexicon: Authenticity, Imagination, and Appropriation in Lesbian and Gay Languages. Amsterdam & Philadelphia, PA: Gordon and Breach.

1994

  • Barrett, Rusty. 1994. "She is not white woman": The appropriation of white women's language by African American drag queens. In Mary Bucholtz, A.C. Liang, Laurel Sutton & Caitlin Hines (eds.), Cultural Performances: Proceedings of the Third Berkeley Women and Language Conference, 1-14. Berkeley, CA: BWLG.

1992

  • Knight, H. Merle. 1992. Gender interference in transsexuals' speech. In Kira Hall, Mary Bucholtz & Birch Moonwomon (eds.), Locating Power: Proceedings of the 2nd Berkeley Women and Language Conference, 312-317. Berkeley, CA: BWLG.